Saturday, 17 December 2011

Healing in Domesday

In the year 1086, King William I ordered a great survey of all the land, farm animals and people in England to take place. Every area south of the R. Tees (then the border with Scotland) was surveyed, which was a total of 13,418 settlements. William could then share this land between his soldiers who had assisted during the Conquest. To the Saxons, this was land seizure and they called the survey ‘Domesday’, meaning ‘Judgement Day’. Some of the settlements mentioned in Domesday are now lost.

In the Domesday Book, Healing is listed as Heghelinge or Hechelinge. In Saxon, this means ‘the Settlement of Haegal’s people’.

The Domesday Book calls an area of land a ‘manor’. Healing was under two separate manors in Domesday, which were near the church and what is now called the moated site. The former (Manor 1) was owned by the Earl Morcar in 1066, and the latter (Manor 2) by Earl Sigar. Both of these men were Saxon.

The land then passed over to relatives of William and soldiers who had fought at the Conquest. Manor 1 was given to to Alfred of Lincoln and Manor 2 was given to the Bishop of Bayeux. The Domesday Book also mentions that the Archbishop of York owned a small part of Healing, which was attached to the manor at Stallingborough.

Because these Norman owners weren’t present to keep charge, stewards were appointed to represent their lords. Wadward was the Bishop of Bayeux’s steward, and Bernard was Alfred of Lincoln’s.

Domesday EntriesManor 1
27/5 In 1066 Morcar had land taxed at 2 carucates when it could have been taxed at 4 carucates. In 1086 Bernard, as Alfred’s steward, oversees 320 acres of land on the demesne farm.
13 sokemen work 80 acres of the demesne land and there are 2 villeins and 2 bordars with 20 oxen (2.5 ploughs). Half of the rental for a water mill brings in 3 shillings.
There are 326 acres of meadow. Value in 1066 40 shillings, value in 1086 50 shillings. Tallage 10 shillings.
27/6 Inland of this manor in Swallow is taxed at 3 bovates but with a true rateable value of 6 bovates. 1 villein has an ox in a plough team.

Manor 24/31 In Healing (in 1066) Sigar was paying a tax of 7 bovates, when he could have been paying tax at 1 carucate and 6 bovates.
In this time (1086), Wadard is the Bishop’s steward and oversees the land for one plough in demesne.
There are 3 villeins and 5 bordars in the village and 2 sokemen with land for 1 plough.
There are 5 acres of meadow. In 1066 it was valued at 30 shillings. In 1086 it’s value is 40 shillings. There is tallage of 20 shillings.
4/32 There is also sokeland of this manor in Clee, which is rated at 3 or 4 bovates.
Here live 4 sokeman, 2 villeins and 1 bordar who work land for 5 ploughing oxen. There are 25 acres of meadow land.
4/33 There is land belonging to this Manor in Thrunscoe which is rated at 4 bovates. 1 villein and 3 sokemen work half a plough of arable land.


1 comment:

  1. James,

    You're doing a grand job on here; its a most comprehensive blog and I can see you being a 'Rod Collins' of the future!

    I thought that this was the most appropriate thread to post my comment on, for as you may well realise, I'm into maps and documents in a big way.



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